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  1. page home edited ... Outlook: Singapore K12 Education 2012-2017 An NMC Horizon Report Regional Analysis Welc…

    Outlook: Singapore K12 Education 2012-2017
    An NMC Horizon Report Regional Analysis
    Welcome to the workspace for the 2012 Horizon Project Singapore. This space is the place for the members of the Advisory Board to manage the process of researching, discussing, and ultimately, selecting the topics for the NMC Technology Outlook: Singaporean K12 Education 2012-2017. This research, and the Horizon Project as a whole, is led by the The New Media Consortium. The Singapore project is made possible by the generous support of SingTel.
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Friday, January 18

  1. page Emerging Technologies edited ... This website gives an o…
    This website gives an overview of the guidelines and polices for mobile use in schools around the United States. It addresses issues such as cyber-bullying and Internet filtering.
    Adventures in Singapore: What would happen if you could get everyone in the same room?
    In this article edtech researcher Justin Reich describes a meeting in Singapore on technology integration in the history classroom that he participated in, involving “the people responsible for curriculum and assessment, pre-service teacher training, in-service teacher training, technology infrastructure design and training.” He discusses the importance of getting all the right people in one room.

    Apple iBooks Author App Lets You Make Your Own Books, for Free
    Tablets are proving to be effective learning and communication tools for some autistic children. Autistic individuals have a strong visual memory, so the touchscreen is visually accessible as opposed to a mouse and keyboard. An app aimed at non-verbal children “encourages players to focus on other people and their needs, something people with autism find difficult.”
    Asia's fastest data cable links TokyoBrazil combats truancy with microchip-embedded uniforms
    The city government of Vitoria de Conquista has funded an initiative
    to Singapore
    A new high-speed undersea data cable connects Japan, Malaysia, Singapore and
    implant chips into the Philippines. “It transfers data via an optical fibre system at 40 gigabits per second, and is three milliseconds faster than any other cable between Singapore and Tokyo.”
    A*STAR Institute
    t-shirts of Microelectronics Partners with Delta Networks to Develop Novel MTM Antenna for WiFi Applications
    A*STAR has signed on with Delta, the global leader
    20,000 students in power and thermal management solutions, to design25 schools. “When a metamaterial antenna for wireless application which “offers improvements in gain and radiation efficiency, and reduction in power consumption and fabrication costs.”
    A*STAR Tech Fest 2012 at Fusionopolis
    This video shows
    student walks through their school’s doors, a parent receives a text message, preventing the teddy bear robot with EXEr technologystudent-approved tactic of waving parents goodbye and then walking away from the school building. If the infrared contact table.
    Brain-computer interface (BCI) Lab at I2R
    student is 20 minutes late or more, the parents are also notified via text message.”
    Eureka! -Team Virtual Dreams - Brazil (video)

    This documentvideo describes the work being done at the InstituteEureka, a program for Infocomm Research (I2R) on non-invasive BCI systemsany device (tablets, mobiles, computers, and even Kinect), that have contributedworks well in a BYOD scenario allowing students and teachers to assistive devices for the physically disableeasily create and other novel medical solutions.present interactive lessons.
    Explosive Growth in Education Apps
    A group of teachers are replacing in-class lectures with short online videos students watch at home to create a “flipped classroom” model opening class time for students to complete their assignments with their teacher standing by to offer one-on-one help.
    IBM and Singapore Economic Development Board Collaborate to Launch Analytics-Based Supply Chain Center
    “Located in one of the world's fastest growing regions, the center will focus on developing analytics and cloud computing technologies for the Asia Pacific region and around the world. IBM scientists from the company's three centers will collaborate with Singapore research and educational institutes on technical exchanges, joint research and commercialisation projects.”

    Indigenous Children Connect Across the Globe Through Technology (Video)
    In the First Peoples' Project, children on five continents have used technology to share their respective cultures in a cultural exchange. Students research their customs then tell their stories digitally through each school's project website.
    Infographic: What NFC could mean for the average Singaporean
    This infographic shows how mobile near-field communication can work in the daily life of a Singaporean for payments and monetary transactions.

    Intel Releases Rugged Education Tablet for the Developing World
    This article explores the use of Xbox Kinect to engage students through gesture-based interactivity in K-12 classroom settings.
    Mobile phone boom in developing world could boost e-learning The ubiquity of mobile phones in areas with little else, makes mobile learning a cost-effective and compelling proposition according to a report by the GSMA mobile industry. "The study looks at Ghana, Morocco, Uganda and Maharashtra, in India, identifying young people's aspirations and priorities, exploring the education and employment challenges they face, and scrutinising their mobile phone use."

    New Computers Respond to Students' Emotions, Boredom
    A new workbook has been published using Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology. In this book, the student lays a tool that looks like a pen near a math problem, and an explanation is given by a voice through the speaker on the pen.
    Scientists showcase innovations at Singapore’s TechFest
    The new technologies coming from A*STAR’s Institute for Infocomm Research were presented during TechFest 2012 in Singapore. Innovations included a new chipset with data transfer capabilities that are 20 times faster than current speeds, a teddy ber robot with I2R’s Emotion Recognition and Expression Framework (EXEr), ghost-free HDR imaging technology, intuitive music sorting based on brain computer interface (iMUSIC), and the taxi trajectory data mining and visualization.

    Score One for the Robo-Tutors
    In a recent study, students at six public universities were assigned randomly to statistics courses that relied heavily on machine-guided learning software, and reduced face-time with instructors. Those students did just as well as students in traditional-format classrooms who met with professors three hours a week.
    Singapore Scientists create world’s smallest gear at Institute of Material Research and Engineering (IMRE)
    Scientists have mounted a molecule onto an atom which acts as an axle, forming a microscopic gear. This technology could lead to pocket-sized super computers or miniature devices for harvesting energy.
    Singapore opens A*STAR Experimental Power Grid Centre
    The high profile project is one of the largest experimental grid facilities in the world and encompasses immediate power grid industry as well as the marine and offshore sector. The EPGC’s mission is “to lead in ushering new technologies for intelligent and decentralized power distribution, interconnection and utilization.”
    Singaporeans' shift to cloud computing driven by mobility
    This article discusses why so many Singaporeans are using cloud services. One of the most important factors cited is “access to information through multiple devices as the most important reason for their decision to adopt cloud computing.”
    Smart Plug for Home Energy Saving & Smart Grid (A*Plug)
    This document from I2R describes the features of the Smart Plug, a technology with wireless communication capabilities and the ability to measure real-time power consumption of home appliances.
    STMicroelectronics Offers First-Time Opportunity for Singapore Undergraduates to Use Smart Multi-Sensor Technology
    The 2012 iNEMO Design Contest invites advanced engineering student from the National University of SIngapore and the Nanyand Tehcnological University (NTU) to develop innovative applications using their smart multi-sensor technology. "Sensing technology has enabled your smartphone to know your movements and is the technology responsible for the physical excitement of motion-based video games," said Patrick Boulaud, STMicroelectronics Regional Vice President, Analog, MEMS and Sensor, Greater China and South Asia Region.
    Survey: Mobile now more popular than TV
    Half of Singapore consumers say mobile ads impact their purchasing decisions compared to 34 percent for TV, finds new survey which reveals that globally, 27 percent spend media time on mobile Web compared to 22 percent on TV.
    Technology Review of Singapore (2011) (see pg S5)
    A document by Technology Review which features five recent innovations from Singapore including Brain-Computer Interface (BCI), The MicroKit, an automated diagnostic system, and the Experimental Power Grid Centre among others.

    TED’s New Site Turns Any YouTube Video Into a Lesson
    TED's new online "flip it" tool allows users to take any YouTube video, add supplemental content and resources, and track participation and responses to create a complete lesson. This article includes pictures to show an example of a finished video turned lesson.
    Virtual Reality Neurosurgery
    In medicine and especially neurosurgery virtual-reality methods are used for education, surgical planning and simulation on a virtual patient.
    You can finally use NFC for payments in Singapore
    This week, SingTel and EZ-Link announced the launch of a mobile payment service for smartphones using near-field communicators (NFC) which allows users to make cashless payments by tapping supported handsets at NFC contactless terminals...from taxis to supermarkets.

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  2. page Challenges edited Research Question 4: Critical Challenges ... challenge(s) that Singaporean K-12 STEM+ educa…

    Research Question 4: Critical Challenges
    challenge(s) that Singaporean K-12STEM+ education will
    INSTRUCTIONS: Enter your responses to the questions below. This is most easily done by moving your cursor to the end of the last item and pressing RETURN to create a new bullet point. Please include URLs whenever you can (full URLs will automatically be turned into hyperlinks; please type them out rather than using the linking tools in the toolbar).
    As you review what others have written, please add your thoughts and comments as well.
    Dividing learning into fixed units such as credit hours limits innovation across the board. For a long time now, credit hours have been the primary way of marking the progress of students in earning their college degrees. This method implies that time is an accurate and effective measure for knowledge comprehension and skill. This industrial construct hinders the growth of more authentic learning approaches, where students and teachers might make use of more creative strategies not bound by such constraints. (Carried forward from the NMC Horizon Project > 2012 HiEd Short List)
    Economic pressures and new models of education are bringing unprecedented competition to the traditional models of education. Across the board, institutions are looking for ways to control costs while still providing a high quality of service. Institutions are challenged by the need to support a steady — or growing — number of students with fewer resources and staff than before. As a result, creative institutions are developing new models to serve students, such as streaming introductory courses over the network. As these pressures continue, other models may emerge that diverge from traditional ones. Simply capitalizing on new technology, however, is not enough; the new models must use these tools and services to engage students on a deeper level. (Carried forward from the 2011 Technology Outlook for UK Tertiary Education).
    > 2012 K-12 Edition)HiEd Short List)
    The growing choice that emerging technologies make possible — and how people navigate through this choice — is an on-going challenge. When there are so many options for both educators and students on which technologies to use, it is easy to lose sight of how they will impact the teaching and learning process. In online learning environments in particular, there are a plethora of available communication, collaboration, and information management platforms. Individually, each tool or application may be effective, but when used all together, they can create a complex user interface where the focus is on the technologies rather than the learning. Navigating through the potential technologies and understanding how they will interact with each other to create a simple, easy-to-use environment is a pressing issue that must be solved at the conceptual — not implementation — level. (Carried forward from the 2011 Technology Outlook for New Zealand Tertiary Education)
    Institutional barriers present formidable challenges to moving forward in a constructive way with emerging technologies. Too often it is education’s own processes and practices that limit broader uptake of new technologies. Much resistance to change is simply comfort with the status quo, but in other cases, such as in promotion and tenure reviews, experimentation with or adoptions of clearly innovative applications of technologies is often seen as outside the role of researcher or scientist. (Carried forward from the NMC Horizon Report > 2012 HiEd Edition)
    K-12 must address the increased blending of formal and informal learning. Traditional lectures and subsequent testing are still dominant learning vehicles in schools. In order for students to get a well-rounded education with real world experience, they must also engage in more informal in-class activities as well as learning to learn outside the classroom. Most schools are not encouraging students to do any of this, nor to experiment and take risks with their learning — but a new model, called the “flipped classroom,” is opening the door to new approaches. The flipped classroom uses the abundance of videos on the Internet to allow students to learn new concepts and material outside of school, thus preserving class time for discussions, collaborations with classmates, problem solving, and experimentation. The approach is not a panacea, and designing an effective blended learning model is key, but the growing success of the many non-traditional alternatives to schools that are using more informal approaches indicates that this trend is here to stay for some time.
    (Carried forward from the NMC Horizon Report > 2012 K-12 Edition)
    Learning that incorporates real life experiences is not occurring enough and is undervalued when it does take place. This challenge is an important one in K-12 schools, because it results in a lack of engagement in learning on the part of students who are seeking some connection between their own lives and their experience in school. Use of technology tools that are already familiar to students, project-based learning practices that incorporate real-life experiences, and mentoring from community members are a few practices that support increased engagement. Practices like these may help retain students in school and prepare them for further education, careers, and citizenship in a way that traditional practices are failing to do. (Carried forward from the NMC Horizon Project > 2012 K-12 Short List)
    Many activities related to learning and education take place outside the walls of the classroom and thus are not part of traditional learning metrics. Students can take advantage of learning material online, through games and programs they may have on systems at home, and through their extensive — and constantly available — social networks. The experiences that happen in and around these venues are difficult to tie back to the classroom, as they tend to happen serendipitously and in response to an immediate need for knowledge, rather than being related to topics currently being studied in school. (Carried forward from the NMC Horizon Report > 2012 K-12 Edition)

    Most academics aren't using new and compelling technologies for learning and teaching, nor for organizing their own research. Many researchers have not undergone training on basic digitally supported teaching techniques, and most do not participate in professional development opportunities. This issue is due to several factors, including a lack of time, a lack of expectations that they should, and the lack of infrastructure to support the training. Academic research facilities rarely have the proper processes set up to accommodate this sort of professional development; many think a cultural shift will be required before we see widespread use of more innovative organizational technology. Many caution that as this unfolds, the focus should not be on the technologies themselves, but on the pedagogies that make them useful. (Carried forward from the 2011 Technology Outlook for UK Tertiary Education)
    Online educational resources must be mobile-friendly. Today's students want to be able to learn from wherever they are with whatever device they prefer. As smartphones and tablets gain more traction in educational settings, there is a demand for online content to keep up and load fast, look high quality, and be easy to use across the growing array of mobile devices.
    Organizations are challenged to ensure quality while engaging in the use of rapidly changing, ever-evolving technologies. As new information and new technologies are readily available, at the fingertips of learners, educational institutions must find ways to intervene and remain a part of the relationship between the technology and the student. These organisations must make wise, up-to-date decisions when investing in and implementing technologies. To do so, they must conduct extensive research and regard technologies and their potential applications from all angles. Collaborations between institutions in the exploration of emerging technology provide them with opportunities to exchange ideas, success stories, obstacles, and develop best practices. (Carried forward from the 2011 Technology Outlook for New Zealand Tertiary Education)
    Putting 21st century technology into 19th century schools is a major undertaking. The 19th century school systems are still ubiquitous, from the outdated, industrial nature of old buildings to the old learning models and processes upheld therein. Schools must adopt 21st century technology to overcome the challenge of the current linear archetypes. These new tools are the antidote; organic and non-linear, 21st century technology facilitates the freedom for students to quickly discover information whenever they need it. In turn, they develop more sophisticated skill sets that open the doors to two- and four-year universities and better jobs. (Carried forward from the NMC Horizon Project > 2012 K-12 Short List)
    Simply staying organized and current presents a challenge in a world where information, software tools, and devices proliferate at the rate they do today. New developments in technology are exciting and their potential for improving quality of life is enticing, but it can be overwhelming to attempt to keep up with even a few of the many new tools that are released. User-created content is exploding, giving rise to information, ideas, and opinions on all sorts of interesting topics, but following even some of the hundreds of available authorities means sifting through a mountain of information on a weekly or daily basis. There is a greater need than ever for effective tools and filters for finding, interpreting, organizing, and retrieving the data that is important to us. (Carried forward from the NMC Horizon Project > 2012 HiEd Short List.)
    We are not using digital media for formative assessment the way we could and should. Assessment is an important driver for educational practice and change, and over the last years we have seen a welcome rise in the use of formative assessment in educational practice. However, there is still an assessment gap in how changes in curricula and new skill demands are implemented in education; schools do not always make necessary adjustments in assessment practices as a consequence of these changes. Another assessment gap is related to the lack of innovative uses of digital media in formative assessment. Many tools are still tied to outdated LMS and do not have the ability to assess critical data sets, such as 21st Century Skills acquisition.
    (Carried forward from the NMC Horizon Project > 2012 K-12 Short List.)

    Add a new challenge here.
    And another one here.
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  3. page Trends edited Research Question 3: Key Trends ... service in Singaporean K-12 STEM+ education? INSTRUCTI…

    Research Question 3: Key Trends
    service in Singaporean K-12STEM+ education?
    INSTRUCTIONS: Enter your responses to the questions below. This is most easily done by moving your cursor to the end of the last item and pressing RETURN to create a new bullet point. Please include URLs whenever you can (full URLs will automatically be turned into hyperlinks; please type them out rather than using the linking tools in the toolbar.
    Please "sign" your contributions by marking with the code of 4 tildes (~) in a row so that we can follow up with you if we need additional information or leads to examples- this produces a signature when the page is updated, like this: Larry Jan 27, 2010
    Compose your entries like this:
    Trend Name. Add your ideas here with a few of sentences description including full URLs for references (e.g. And do not forget to sign your contribution with 4 ~ (tilde) characters!
    and preparing students[[#|students]] for the
    Tertiary Education) Uriel.Cukierman Today 11:09 am
    As the cost of technology drops and school districts revise and open up their access policies, it is becoming increasingly common for students to bring their own mobile devices. A growing number of schoolsMassively Open Online Courses are launching “Bring Your Own Device” (BYOD) programs so that students can use the devices they already own in class as well asproliferating in STEM areas, the informal and out-of-school environments they are ubiquitous in now. Thisquality of free education is happening partly because of how BYOD impacts budgets; schools can spend less money on technology overall if students use their own, while funneling the funds they do spend to help students who cannot afford their own devices. The interest in BYOD programs can also be attributed to an attitude shift as schools are beginning to better understand the capabilities of smartphones and other devices that still remain banned on most campuses. (Carried forward from the NMC Horizon Report > 2012 K-12 Edition)
    Massively Open Online Courses are proliferating.
    improving. MOOCs such
    initiatives, the focus onquality of the online courses
    many cases, smartphonessmart [[#|phones]] and other
    Tertiary Education). The availability of 'phablet' type technologies for convenience and flexibility to access courses. Future generations will be skilled to use all forms of social media and technologies and the development and design of courses may be used more readily using smart phones, tablets, etc.
    Education paradigms are shifting to include online learning, hybrid learning and collaborative models. Budget cuts have forced institutions to re-evaluate their education strategies and find alternatives to the exclusive face-to-face learning models. Students already spend much of their free time on the Internet, learning and exchanging new information -- often via their social networks. Institutions that embrace face-to-face/online hybrid learning models have the potential to leverage the online skills learners have already developed independent of academia. We are beginning to see developments in online learning that offer different affordances than physical campuses, including opportunities for increased collaboration while equipping students with stronger digital skills. Hybrid models, when designed and implemented successfully, enable students to travel to campus for some activities, while using the network for others, taking advantage of the best of both environments. (Carried forward from the NMC Horizon Report > 2012 HiEd Edition)
    Enhanced electronic books are increasingly being used instead of traditional textbooks. As e-book technology advances, digital textbooks contain more dynamic content, including audio, videos, and other interactive features. Traditional textbooks are cumbersome and can take years to update and reprint when there is new information and discoveries to be added. However, e-books can be easily revised and disseminate as often as needed, and the cost to produce one is significantly less than that of a print book.
    Increasingly, students want to use their own technology for learning. As new technologies are developed at a more rapid and at a higher quality, there is a wide variety of different devices, gadgets, and tools from which to choose. Utilizing a specific device has become something very personal -- an extension of someone's personality and learning style -- for example, the iPhone vs. the Android. There is comfort in giving a presentation or performing research with tools that are more familiar and productive at the individual level. And, with handheld technology becoming mass produced and more affordable, students are more likely to have access to more advanced equipment in their personal lives than at school. (Carried forward from the 2011 Technology Outlook for UK Tertiary Education)
    Institutions are increasingly exploring technologies that allow teachers and students to better collaborate. Social networks and cloud-based tools and applications are changing the ways teachers and students communicate with each other. Open resources such as wikis and Google Apps also enable the free exchange of ideas and prompt insightful discussions between teachers and students. The result is more opportunities for collaboration, and a change in the dynamic of the teacher-student relationship that promotes more of an equilibrium. (Carried forward from the NMC Horizon Project > 2012 HiEd Short List)
    One-to-one computing is spreading to a large number of countries and regions.Providing students constant access to computers and the Internet is an education game-changer. Current studies have been tracking and analyzing the ways in which one-to-one computing is impacting student achievement in class, and the early results are promising. A key driver behind the adoption of this model is how well it complements both project- and challenge-based learning, which already have proven correlations to increasing student engagement. (Carried forward from the NMC Horizon Project > 2012 K-12 Short List)
    People expect to be able to work, learn, and study whenever and wherever they want to. This trend, noted in several recent NMC Horizon Reports, continues to permeate all aspects of daily living. Life in an increasingly busy world where learners must balance demands from home, work, school, and family poses a host of logistical challenges with which today's ever more mobile students must cope. A faster approach is often perceived as a better approach, and as such people want easy and timely access not only to the information on the network, but to their social networks that can help them to interpret it and maximize its value. The implications for informal learning are profound, as are the notions of just-in-time learning and found learning, both ways of maximizing the impact of learning by ensuring it is timely and efficient. (Carried forward from the NMC Horizon Report > 2012 HiEd Edition)
    The technologies we use are increasingly cloud-based, and our notions of IT support are decentralized. The continuing acceptance and adoption of cloud-based applications and services is changing not only the ways we configure and use software and file storage, but even how we conceptualize those functions. It does not matter where our work is stored; what matters is that our information is accessible no matter where we are or what device we choose to use. Globally, in huge numbers, we are growing used to a model of browser-based software that is device-independent. While some challenges still remain, specifically with notions of privacy and control, the promise of significant cost savings is an important driver in the search for solutions. (Carried forward from the 2011 Technology Outlook for UK Tertiary Education)
    Technology continues to profoundly affect the way we work, collaborate, communicate, and succeed.Increasingly, technology skills are critical to success in almost every arena, and those who are more facile with technology will advance while those without access or skills will not. The digital divide, once seen as a factor of wealth, is now seen as a factor of education: those who have the opportunity to learn technology skills are in a better position to obtain and make use of technology than those who do not. Evolving occupations, multiple careers, and an increasingly mobile workforce contribute to this trend. (Carried forward from the NMC Horizon Report > 2012 K-12 Edition)
    There is a new emphasis in the classroom on more challenge-based, active learning. Challenge-based learning and similar methods foster more active learning experiences, both inside and outside the classroom. As technologies such as tablets and smartphones now have proven applications in schools, educators are leveraging these tools, which students already use, to connect the curriculum with real life issues. The active learning approaches are decidedly more student-centered, allowing them to take control of how they engage with a subject and to brainstorm and implement solutions to pressing local and global problems. The hope is that if learners can connect the course material with their own lives and their surrounding communities, then they will become more excited to learn and immerse themselves in the subject matter. Studies of challenge-based learning in practice, including two authored by the NMC, depict an increase in the uptake of 21st Century Skills among learners, including leadership and creativity.
    (Carried forward from the NMC Horizon Report > 2012 K-12 Edition)

    The world of work is increasingly collaborative, driving changes in the way student projects are structured. As more and more employers are valuing collaboration as a critical skill, silos both in the workplace and at school are being abandoned in favour of collective intelligence. To facilitate more teamwork and group communication, projects rely on tools like wikis, Google Doc, Skype, and online forums. Projects are increasingly evaluated by educators not just on the overall outcome, but also on the success of the group dynamic. In many cases, the online collaboration tool itself is an equally important outcome as it stores -- and even immortalizes -- the process and multiple perspectives that led to the end results. (Carried forward from the 2011 Technology Outlook for UK Tertiary Education).
    Any channel, any device, anywhereChannel, Any Device, Anywherebring your own everything is increasingly the norm.Bring Your Own Everything. The technology
    Smarter "things" are coming.Things A world
    20, 2012
    The cost for Big

    Data and
    Scale Computing is Small Prices This broad
    The way we interact with technology is more and more human.Human Way to Interact With Technology This scenario
    20, 2012

    What Payment Could Really Become This scenario envisions a
    cashless world
    an electronic one is becoming a This will
    20, 2012
    Humans have

    The Voice of the Customer Is on File Humans are social by nature, which drives
    a need
    3D printingPrint It at home is increasingly affordable.Home In this
    Add another trend here ...
    And another here.
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  4. page New Topic edited ... New Topic Title. Description, rationale and discussion.... Another new Technology. Descriptio…
    New Topic Title. Description, rationale and discussion....
    Another new Technology. Description, rationale and discussion....
    Title: Alternative knowledge representation tools
    Technologies that allow users to represent their knowledge in multiple forms and multiple modes. For example, CMap allows users to collaboratively create concept maps, GoAnimate allows users to create video animation, Xtranormal allows users to create their story, Prezi allows users to present their ideas zooming in or out of a big canvas. These tools empower users to represent knowledge beyond 2D multimedia and beyond linear textual representation. sengchee.tan Sep 5, 2012
    Title: Student Response System
    Technologies are already available in the market that allows student responses to be captured within a classroom during a delivery by a teacher. This can be done through a "clicker" like device that communicates with a base receiver connected to the teacher's PC or notebook computer. It gives the teacher a real time pulse indicator on how the lesson is being received by the students when questions are asked and responses presented in a graphical format. Technology advancements can be ventured further to see how this can be further enhanced upon perhaps via mobile apps. cslee Sep 5, 2012

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